Changing Patterns of Security of India and Pakistan in the Age of Nation Branding: Role of Image and identity of State


  • Sadia Mahmood Falki Assistant Professor at the Department of Political Science, LCWU Lahore, Pakistan. Author
  • Aisha Shehzad Chairperson Department of Political Science at LCWU, Lahore, Pakistan. Author


Soft & Sharp Power, Pakistan, Nation Branding, India, Diaspora, China


India-Pakistan traditional animosity has been characterized by the nuclear deterrence and missile race in South Asian region. However, contemporary changes like enhanced global outreach of India, increasing role of Indian diaspora and its expanding public diplomacy has altered the extent of challenges for Pakistan. Pakistan, since 1998 has largely relied on its nuclear parity with India rather than depending on conventional weapon capabilities. The paradigm shifts in India‟s foreign policy strategy by focusing more on its soft power outdated the security rational of Pakistan as it substantially lacks the respective means to develop counter response. The contemporary Indian approach against Pakistan is comprised of manipulation of information while using „sharp power „strategy. India‟s global outreach through its nation branding has transformed the nature of India-Pakistan rivalry into a war of narratives where Pakistan appears significantly weak due to its obsolete security sensitivities. The state elite and strategists in Pakistan primarily overlook the need to craft the positive image of state through strategic self-presentation and exclusively focus on deterring India through nuclear parity. This study aims to analyze the India-Pakistan rivalry in the context of nation branding through image and identity of India as a new security parameter for Pakistan. This research is primarily qualitative and has incorporated explanatory approach to address these questions. The underlying study suggests that contemporary Indian strategists do not seem to encourage the possibility of full-scale war, neither with China nor Pakistan. Consequently, new realm of security competition between India and Pakistan lies in war of narratives where Pakistan can also employ sharp power tactics by highlighting duplicity of Indian policy as well as marketing of Pakistan‟s indulgent side of state and society.


Download data is not yet available.